Disease

MEASLES
Measles is a disease caused by a virus that spreads very easily from person to person. It usually lasts a week or two. Measles looks and feels like a cold or the flu at first. A cough, high fever, runny nose and red, watery eyes are common. A few days later, a red, blotchy rash starts on the face, then spreads to the rest of the body.

Measles is more easily spread than almost any other disease. The virus that causes measles lives in the nose and throat and is sprayed into the air when an infected person sneezes, coughs or talks. It can stay in the air for up to 2 hours. Other people nearby can then inhale the virus. Touching tissues or sharing a cup used by someone who has measles can also spread the virus. People with measles can spread the disease 4 days before the rash begins until 4 days after rash onset. 

The first symptoms appear 10 - 14 days after a person is exposed.

There are currently several outbreaks of measles in the United States:  New York City, New York State, Washington State, California, New Jersey and Michigan. There has been one case of measles in Massachusetts in 2019 which occurred in greater Boston on Sunday, March 31.

The best way to protect yourself and your family against measles and other vaccine preventable diseases to ensure that you and your family are vaccinated as recommended.  By ensuring that you get your vaccinations, you create HERD IMMUNITY.

Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.

Please see the attached fact sheets under "RELATED DOCUMENTS" at the bottom of this page for more information or consult the CDC website for frequently asked questions concerning measles at CDC Website

For more information, please consult the Massachusetts Department of Public Health website at MA Department of Public Health Website or the Centers for Disease Control at Center for Disease Control Website

CHICKEN POX
Chickenpox is a very contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It causes a blister-like rash, itching, tiredness, and fever. Chickenpox can be serious, especially in babies, adults, and people with weakened immune systems. It spreads easily from infected people to others who have never had chickenpox or received the chickenpox vaccine. Chickenpox spreads in the air through coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread by touching or breathing in the virus particles that come from chickenpox blisters.

DIABETES
Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes sugar to build up in your blood.

EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS (EEE)
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only a few cases are reported in the United States each year. 

HEPATITIS A
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis but a virus often causes hepatitis. In the United States, the most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. 

For more information, please visit the Center for Disease Control (CDC) website at: Center for Disease Control

LYME DISEASE
Untreated Lyme disease can produce a wide range of symptoms, depending on the stage of infection. These include fever, rash, facial paralysis, and arthritis. Seek medical attention if you observe any of these symptoms and have had a tick bite, live in an area known for Lyme disease, or have recently traveled to an area where Lyme disease occurs.

MEASLES
Measles starts with fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and sore throat. It’s followed by a rash that spreads over the body. Measles virus is highly contagious virus and spreads through the air through coughing and sneezing. Make sure you and your child are protected with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.

NOROVIRUS
Norovirus is a very contagious virus. You can get norovirus from an infected person, contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. The virus causes your stomach or intestines or both to get inflamed (acute gastroenteritis). This leads you to have stomach pain, nausea, and diarrhea and to throw up.

Quick Links:
http://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/index.html
http://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/tips-infographic-sp.html

PERTUSSIS (ALSO KNOWN AS WHOOPING COUGH)
Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease. It is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.

Pertussis is known for uncontrollable, violent coughing which often makes it hard to breathe. After fits of many coughs, someone with pertussis often needs to take deep breaths which result in a "whooping" sound. Pertussis can affect people of all ages, but can be very serious, even deadly, for babies less than a year old.

The best way to protect against pertussis is by getting vaccinated.

WEST NILE VIRUS (WNV)
West Nile virus (WNV) is most commonly transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. You can reduce your risk of being infected with WNV by using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites. There are no medications to treat or vaccines to prevent WNV infection. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV will have no symptoms

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